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Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos: Living With Feathery Overlords – A Survival Guide


The Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo, a vibrant and intelligent species, has long captured the hearts of bird lovers around the world. They are one of the most recognizable and iconic members of the parrot family due to their striking appearance and lively personalities.

Originating from the woodlands and rainforests of Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, and the surrounding islands, the Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo is famed for its namesake trait, a radiant crest of sulfur-yellow feathers. These feathers, which stand tall and fan out, especially when the bird is excited or alarmed, set the Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo apart from its peers. The bird’s overall plumage is predominantly white, creating a striking contrast with the yellow crest and the bird’s dark bill.

Beyond its captivating appearance, the Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo has a personality that is equally appealing. They are highly social creatures, known to congregate in flocks of up to several hundred birds in the wild. This strong social instinct often translates into affectionate and interactive behavior when kept as pets. They can form deep bonds with their human caretakers, often seeking physical contact and interaction. However, it’s essential to remember that these birds require a significant amount of attention and mental stimulation due to their high intelligence and social nature.

Another fascinating aspect of the Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo is its impressive lifespan. These birds can live up to 70 years, and there are even reports of some reaching the age of 100! This longevity means that owning a Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo is a long-term commitment that should not be taken lightly.

Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos are also known for their impressive vocal abilities. They can produce a variety of calls and sounds, some of which can be extremely loud. In the wild, these calls serve various purposes, such as communicating with the flock, expressing emotions, and marking territory. In a domestic setting, this proclivity for noise can sometimes prove challenging for their human companions, especially those living in apartments or close proximity to their neighbors.

An underappreciated aspect of the Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo’s intelligence is their problem-solving ability. They have been observed using tools in the wild, a rare trait among birds, and are able to learn a variety of tricks and tasks when properly trained.


Among the several subspecies of the Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo (Cacatua galerita), the Eleonora Cockatoo, or Medium Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo, is particularly noteworthy. Scientifically known as Cacatua galerita eleonora, this subspecies originates from the Aru Islands and southern New Guinea.

The Eleonora Cockatoo shares many features with the larger Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo. It possesses the same striking white plumage, contrasted by a bright yellow crest and a dark, almost black bill. However, it is slightly smaller than the typical Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo, typically measuring around 45 to 50 centimeters (17-20 inches) in length.

Much like its larger cousin, the Eleonora Cockatoo is social and intelligent. It thrives in social situations and requires a lot of mental and physical stimulation to stay happy and healthy. They are known for their playful nature and their ability to form strong bonds with their human caretakers.

The Eleonora Cockatoo is also recognized for its vocal abilities. It is capable of producing a range of sounds and calls, some of which can be incredibly loud. These birds are also known for their ability to mimic human speech, a trait that adds to their charm and appeal as pets.

However, potential owners should remember that the Eleonora Cockatoo, like all Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos, has a long lifespan and requires a significant commitment in terms of time, attention, and resources. Owning one of these birds is a long-term endeavor and should be approached with understanding and preparation.

Distinguishing Characteristics

Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos, while part of the larger parrot family, have several distinguishing features that set them apart from other species.

  1. Appearance: The most distinctive feature of the Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo is the bright yellow crest from which it gets its name. This crest, composed of elongated feathers that can be raised or lowered depending on the bird’s mood, is a striking feature not commonly seen in many other parrot species. The stark contrast between the predominantly white plumage and the vibrant yellow crest, coupled with the bird’s dark bill, gives the Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo a unique and recognizable appearance.
  2. Size: Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos are among the larger parrot species. They can reach lengths of up to 50 cm and have a wingspan of about 1 meter. This size is considerably larger than many other parrot species.
  3. Lifespan: The lifespan of a Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo is remarkable, with many individuals living up to 70 years and some even reaching 100. This long lifespan far exceeds that of many other parrot species.
  4. Vocalization: Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos are renowned for their loud calls and screams, which can be heard over long distances. While many parrots are vocal, the intensity and volume of the Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo’s calls are notable.
  5. Social Behavior: While many parrots are social creatures, Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos display particularly strong social behavior. They are known to congregate in large flocks in the wild and show a high degree of interaction and bonding when kept as pets.
  6. Intelligence and Problem-Solving: Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos, like many large parrots, exhibit high levels of intelligence. They are known for their problem-solving abilities, including the use of tools, a trait not commonly found in many other parrot species.
  7. Diet: While the diet of a Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo largely overlaps with that of other parrots, consisting mainly of seeds, nuts, fruits, and insects, they are also known to feed on flowers and roots, which is not as common in some other parrot species.

These distinguishing features make the Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo a unique and fascinating member of the parrot family.

Natural Habitat

The Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo inhabits a wide range of environments in the wild, showing a remarkable ability to adapt to various ecosystems. Their natural range spans across Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, and the surrounding islands, where they can be found in several types of habitats.

Predominantly, these birds inhabit the woodlands, rainforests, and the margins of eucalyptus groves, where they can find plenty of food and nesting opportunities. They are also frequently seen in the savannas and mangroves. The lush, diverse vegetation of these areas provides ample food sources, such as seeds, nuts, berries, roots, and insects, which make up the primary diet of these cockatoos.

Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos are tree-dwellers, often nesting in the hollows of tall trees. They have a preference for older trees with large hollows for their nests. These hollows not only provide a safe place to lay eggs but also offer protection from predators and the elements.

While these birds are native to relatively uninhabited areas, they have also shown an exceptional ability to adapt to human-altered environments. They can be commonly spotted in urban areas, suburban parks, farmlands, and even large gardens, where they can often be seen foraging for food or flying overhead in large, noisy flocks.

Despite their adaptability, Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos, like many other wildlife species, are not immune to the impacts of habitat destruction and climate change. Preservation of their natural habitats, along with responsible pet ownership, is crucial for the continued survival and wellbeing of this remarkable species.


Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos are known for their impressive longevity, both in the wild and in captivity.

In the wild, these birds typically live for around 20 to 40 years. However, this lifespan can vary depending on several factors, including the availability of food, predation, disease, and habitat destruction.

In captivity, where they are protected from predators and have a consistent food supply, Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos can live significantly longer. It’s not uncommon for these birds to live up to 70 years in a captive environment, and there have been instances of some individuals reaching or even exceeding 100 years of age.

This substantial lifespan is one of the longest among bird species and is comparable to that of humans. As such, adopting a Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo as a pet is a long-term commitment that should not be undertaken lightly. These birds require consistent care, social interaction, and mental stimulation throughout their lives.

It’s also important to note that a balanced diet, regular veterinary check-ups, and good overall care are crucial in ensuring a long, healthy life for a Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo. This includes providing them with a spacious and enriching environment, maintaining their social needs, and monitoring for any signs of illness or distress.

Aging Characteristics

The Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo, a fascinating bird species known for its unique appearance and dynamic behavior, goes through a variety of changes as it progresses through its life stages.

Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo Chicks

When Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo chicks first hatch, they are helpless, blind, and covered in a sparse layer of downy feathers. During this period, they are completely dependent on their parents for warmth, food, and protection. As they grow, their down becomes thicker and slowly gets replaced by their first set of feathers.

The chicks typically fledge, or leave the nest, after about 70 to 75 days. At this stage, they begin to look more like smaller versions of adult cockatoos, though they still depend on their parents for food and learning essential skills for a few more weeks.

Adult Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos

As they transition into adulthood, Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos develop their signature bright white plumage and sulfur-yellow crest. Adults usually measure around 45-55 centimeters in length from the beak to the tip of the tail feathers and have a wingspan of about 1 meter.

Behaviorally, adult Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos are highly social and intelligent creatures. They are active, curious, and known for their loud, distinctive calls. In the wild, they often congregate in large flocks and display complex social behaviors.

Adult cockatoos are also known for their strong bonds with their mates. They are generally monogamous, staying with the same partner for life.

Senior Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos

As they age, Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos may experience some changes in their appearance and behavior. Their feathers may not be as vibrant, and some birds may develop cataracts or other age-related health issues.

Behaviorally, older cockatoos might become less active and may require more rest. They may also display signs of cognitive decline, similar to the aging process in humans. Despite these changes, many senior cockatoos still retain their social and interactive nature.

In terms of care, senior cockatoos may need additional veterinary attention to monitor and manage any potential health issues. This can include regular check-ups and adjustments to their diet and environment as needed.

Throughout all stages of their lives, Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos are captivating creatures. Their long lifespan, coupled with their vibrant personalities and striking appearance, makes them a species of great interest both in the wild and in captivity.

Costs of Ownership

Owning a Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo can be a rewarding experience, but it’s also a significant commitment in terms of time, energy, and finances. Here are some of the costs associated with owning one of these birds:

  1. Purchase Price: The initial cost of purchasing a Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo can vary widely depending on the bird’s age, health, and where you buy it. The price range could be anywhere from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars.
  2. Cage and Accessories: Cockatoos require a large, sturdy cage that provides them with plenty of room to move around. This can cost several hundred dollars. Additionally, you’ll need to provide perches, toys, and enrichment items to keep the bird entertained and stimulated. These will need to be replaced regularly as they wear out or are destroyed by the bird’s powerful beak.
  3. Food: A balanced diet for a Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo includes a variety of fresh fruits and vegetables, high-quality bird pellets, and some seeds and nuts. These costs can add up over time, especially considering the long lifespan of these birds.
  4. Veterinary Care: Regular vet check-ups are essential to maintain the health of your bird and to catch any potential health issues early. Emergency care can be costly as well. It’s also highly recommended to find a vet who specializes in avian medicine, which may be more expensive than a general vet.
  5. Grooming: While many grooming tasks like feather preening and beak grinding are performed by the bird itself, some aspects like nail trimming might require professional assistance, especially if the bird is not used to the process.
  6. Time and Social Costs: Cockatoos require a lot of social interaction and mental stimulation, which means you’ll need to spend a significant amount of time each day interacting with your bird. This could impact your ability to travel or spend long periods away from home.
  7. Potential Damage: It’s worth noting that Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos, like many large parrots, have powerful beaks and can be destructive, especially when bored or stressed. They can chew furniture, walls, or personal belongings, leading to potential repair or replacement costs.

In summary, while owning a Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo can bring a lot of joy and companionship, it’s a significant responsibility and requires ongoing financial commitment. Anyone considering adopting one of these birds should make sure they’re fully aware of the associated costs and are prepared to provide the necessary care and attention for the bird’s entire lifespan.

Annual Veterinary Care

Maintaining the health and well-being of a Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo involves a variety of annual veterinary services. Here are some of the standard veterinary requirements you should expect to follow each year, along with their average costs:

Annual Check-up: At least once a year, your cockatoo should have a comprehensive physical examination. This exam will likely include a weight check, evaluation of the bird’s overall appearance and behavior, and a thorough physical examination of the bird’s body, including the beak, eyes, ears, feathers, skin, wings, legs, and vent. The cost for exams and checkups is around $100 or more depending on location and veterinarian availability​.

Gram Stain: This is a type of microbiological staining technique used to detect bacteria and yeast in bird droppings. It’s a relatively simple and inexpensive test that can provide valuable information about your bird’s health. The average cost of a gram stain is about $8​​.

Wet Mount: This is another type of fecal examination used to detect parasites in bird droppings. It involves viewing a sample of the feces under a microscope. The average cost of a wet mount is around $101​.

Chlamydia Testing: Birds, like Cockatoos, can be carriers of Chlamydia psittaci, a type of bacteria that can cause an infection known as psittacosis or parrot fever. Regular testing for Chlamydia is recommended, especially if your bird has been exposed to other birds. The average cost of Chlamydia testing is between $25 to $30​​.

Aside from these annual requirements, it’s important to monitor your cockatoo’s health and behavior daily. Changes in behavior, appetite, or droppings, or signs of illness like lethargy, plucked feathers, or breathing difficulties, should be addressed with your vet immediately. Remember, Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos are known for their long lifespan, and with good care and regular veterinary attention, your feathered friend can remain a healthy and happy companion for many years.


Sulfur-crested cockatoos, like other bird species, can be susceptible to a variety of diseases and health conditions. It’s essential to regularly monitor your bird for any signs of illness and to take them for regular veterinary check-ups. Here are some of the health conditions that can typically affect sulfur-crested cockatoos:

Psittacosis (Parrot Fever): This is a bacterial infection that can be transmitted to humans. Symptoms can include lethargy, loss of appetite, and respiratory problems.

Avian Gastric Yeast (AGY): Formerly known as Megabacteria, this yeast infection can cause weight loss, decreased appetite, and regurgitation in birds.

Beak And Feather Disease (PBFD): This viral disease can cause abnormal feather growth and beak deformities. It’s highly contagious and can be fatal.

Bumblefoot: This is an infection in the foot caused by a cut or abrasion becoming infected. It’s characterized by swelling, redness, and lameness.

Proventricular Dilatation Disease (PDD): Also known as Macaw Wasting Disease, this viral condition affects the nerves of the bird’s gastrointestinal tract, leading to a variety of digestive problems.

Aspergillosis: This is a fungal infection that primarily affects the bird’s respiratory system. It’s often caused by poor hygiene or a weakened immune system.

Chlamydiosis: Also known as “parrot fever,” this is a bacterial infection that can lead to respiratory problems, diarrhea, and lethargy. It’s zoonotic, which means it can be transmitted to humans.

Nutritional Deficiencies: Cockatoos can suffer from various nutritional deficiencies if they’re not fed a balanced diet. For example, a lack of calcium can lead to weak bones and beak problems, while a deficiency in Vitamin A can cause skin and feather issues.

Behavioral Problems: Cockatoos are intelligent and social birds, and if they’re bored, lonely, or stressed, they may develop behavioral problems. This can include self-mutilation (such as feather plucking), excessive screaming, and aggression.

It’s essential to provide your cockatoo with a balanced diet, plenty of mental stimulation, and regular veterinary care to help prevent these conditions and ensure they lead a long and healthy life. If you notice any changes in your bird’s behavior, appearance, or eating habits, it’s always a good idea to consult with a vet as soon as possible.


Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos are incredibly intelligent birds known for their impressive learning skills and trainability. They are adept at problem-solving and can be taught a variety of tricks and behaviors with appropriate training methods. However, their intelligence and curious nature also mean that they require consistent mental stimulation to prevent boredom and behavioral issues.

Socialization: The first step in the training process usually involves socialization. Cockatoos should be gradually introduced to different people, environments, and situations to help them become comfortable and well-adjusted. This can include handling by different people, exposure to household noises, and even trips outside in a secure carrier or harness.

Positive Reinforcement: Training a cockatoo typically involves positive reinforcement, which rewards desired behaviors with treats, praise, or other positive stimuli. For example, if you’re teaching your bird to step onto your hand, you might offer a favorite treat each time they do so. Over time, the bird will associate the behavior with the reward and will be more likely to repeat it.

Tricks and Commands: Cockatoos can be taught a variety of tricks and commands, from simple behaviors like “step up” or “come here” to more complex tricks like retrieving objects or performing flips. Training should always be done in short, frequent sessions to prevent the bird from becoming bored or frustrated.

Speech and Mimicry: Sulfur-crested cockatoos are also capable of mimicking human speech and sounds, although their abilities in this area aren’t as extensive as some other parrot species like African Greys or Amazon parrots. However, with repetition and reinforcement, they can learn to mimic a variety of words and phrases.

Problem-Solving Skills: Sulfur-crested cockatoos are renowned for their problem-solving abilities. Many owners provide their birds with puzzle toys or foraging activities to stimulate these skills. For example, a bird might be given a toy where they must remove a series of obstacles to reach a treat inside.

Remember, training a cockatoo or any bird requires patience and consistency. It’s also essential to provide plenty of mental and physical stimulation to keep these intelligent birds engaged and happy. If training sessions are fun and rewarding, your Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo will be eager to learn and participate.


In the wild, Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos are omnivores, with the majority of their diet being plant-based. They feed primarily on seeds, nuts, roots, berries, and leaf buds. They are also known to consume insects and their larvae. Their strong, hooked beaks are perfectly adapted for cracking open hard-shelled nuts and seeds. They usually forage in groups and can often be seen feeding on the ground.

In captivity, the diet of Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos should be as varied and balanced as possible to mimic their natural diet and ensure they receive all necessary nutrients. Here’s what a typical diet might look like:

Pellets: Commercially available parrot pellets should make up about 60-70% of your cockatoo’s diet. These are specially formulated to provide a balanced mix of nutrients.

Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: The rest of your cockatoo’s diet should consist of a variety of fresh fruits and vegetables. These can include apples, bananas, berries, oranges, carrots, spinach, and peas. Always wash fresh produce thoroughly to remove any pesticides and cut them into manageable pieces.

Nuts and Seeds: While seeds and nuts are a natural part of the cockatoo’s diet, they should be given sparingly in captivity as they are high in fat. They should be considered treats and not a main part of their diet.

Protein: Cockatoos can benefit from additional protein sources such as boiled eggs or cooked lean chicken, given occasionally.

Please avoid feeding your cockatoo foods that can be harmful or toxic to birds, such as avocado, chocolate, caffeine, alcohol, and salty or sugary foods.

Always ensure clean, fresh water is available at all times. Consult with a veterinarian or bird nutrition expert for the best dietary advice for your specific bird.

Mating Behavior

Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos, like many parrot species, have specific reproductive habits and rituals. Their reproductive life can be characterized by monogamy, intricate courtship behaviors, and shared parental duties.

These cockatoos are typically monogamous, meaning they form pair bonds that last for many years, often for life. During the breeding season, which typically occurs from August to January in their native Australia, the male will court the female with an array of displays. This can include crest raising, wing spreading, and a variety of vocalizations. The aim of these displays is to demonstrate the male’s health and suitability as a mate.

Nesting takes place in tree cavities, where the female will lay one to three eggs. Both parents share the responsibility of incubating the eggs, which lasts for about 27 to 30 days. Once the chicks hatch, both parents participate in feeding and caring for them until they are ready to fledge, which usually happens around 70 to 75 days after hatching.

Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos reach sexual maturity at around 3 to 4 years of age, although they often don’t start breeding until they are older. In the wild, these birds may breed every one to two years, while in captivity, with the right conditions, they may breed more frequently. It’s important to note that breeding these birds in captivity should only be done responsibly, with a thorough understanding of their needs and consideration for the long-term care of any offspring.

Lastly, as with any animal, individual Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos may vary in their reproductive behaviors and timelines. It’s always advisable to seek advice from a bird or avian expert when it comes to the specifics of breeding and rearing these remarkable birds.

Gender Characteristics

Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos exhibit what is known as sexual monomorphism, meaning males and females have similar physical appearances. This makes it challenging to distinguish between the sexes based on physical characteristics alone. They both boast the same striking white plumage, bright yellow crest, and strong, curved beak. However, there are a few subtle differences that can be used to tell them apart:

  1. Eye Color: The most notable difference between male and female Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos is their eye color. Adult males typically have dark brown to black eyes, while adult females have reddish-brown or burgundy eyes. This difference is more apparent in mature birds and may not be as noticeable in younger individuals.
  2. Size: Males tend to be slightly larger than females, but this difference is usually subtle and may not be a reliable indicator unless you have a large number of birds for comparison.
  3. Behavior: Behavioral differences can sometimes be noticed, although these are not always reliable due to individual personality differences. Males can often be more outgoing and assertive, while females may be more reserved.

Despite these slight differences, the most reliable method to determine the sex of a Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo is through DNA sexing or surgical sexing, both of which should be performed by a qualified avian veterinarian. DNA sexing involves taking a blood or feather sample and testing it in a laboratory, while surgical sexing involves a minor surgical procedure. Both methods are highly accurate but should be performed by professionals to ensure the safety and well-being of the bird.

IUCN Red List Status (Least Concern)

The sulfur-crested cockatoo is classified as “Least Concern” on the IUCN Red List, meaning that its populations are currently stable and not facing immediate threats of extinction

Where to Visit Locally

There are no sulfur-crested cockatoos among the flock at Port Orchard Parrot Rescue & Sanctuary, however Port Orchard Parrots Plus frequently hosts boarding sulfur-crested cockatoos.  Visitors are welcome to view our flock at any time during regular business hours, however we recommend viewing between noon and 2:30pm when we and our volunteers are not engaged in feeding and cleaning activity. It may also be possible to view sulfur-crested cockatoos in the collections of either the Point Defiance Zoo (Tacoma) or the Woodland Park Zoo (Seattle).


Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos are a captivating species known for their striking white plumage, bright yellow crests, and vivacious personalities. Native to the woodlands and rainforests of Australia and New Guinea, they have also made a home in urban areas, showcasing their adaptability.

There are two subspecies of sulfur-crested cockatoos: Cacatua galerita galerita and Cacatua galerita triton. The former, also known as the Greater Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo, is larger and has a more extensive yellow crest. In contrast, the Triton Sulfur-Crested Cockatoo is slightly smaller with a more restricted yellow crest.

One of the larger species of cockatoo, sulfur-crested cockatoos stand out for their size, distinctive coloring, loud calls, and crest display. These parrots have a life expectancy of up to 70 years in the wild, and with proper care, can live well beyond 40 years in captivity.

These birds are at different stages of their lives, display distinctive behaviors. As chicks, they are altricial, meaning they are entirely dependent on their parents for food and protection. As adults, they are known for their loud and boisterous nature, often seen in large, noisy flocks. As they age, they can become more quiet and less active but maintain their intelligence and sociability.

Owning a sulfur-crested cockatoo is a significant commitment, both in terms of time and financial resources. The cost of the bird itself can range from $1,000 to $3,000, and the annual costs, including food, toys, cage maintenance, and veterinary care, can add up to hundreds of dollars. Regular vet visits, which can cost around $50 to $150, are essential to maintain their health, given that they are susceptible to several health issues, including obesity, psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), and psittacosis.

These birds are highly intelligent and can learn a variety of tricks and behaviors, with some even able to mimic human speech. Training should be consistent, positive, and rewarding to encourage desired behaviors.

In the wild, sulfur-crested cockatoos feed primarily on seeds, nuts, roots, berries, and leaf buds, and occasionally insects and their larvae. In captivity, their diet should be balanced and varied, including parrot pellets, fresh fruits and vegetables, and occasional protein sources like boiled eggs or cooked lean chicken.

Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos are monogamous and have specific reproductive habits and rituals. They engage in intricate courtship behaviors, and both parents share the responsibility of incubating the eggs and caring for the chicks.

In terms of physical characteristics, males and females are quite similar, with the most notable difference being their eye color. Adult males typically have dark brown to black eyes, while adult females have reddish-brown or burgundy eyes.

Despite their popularity in the pet trade, sulfur-crested cockatoos are currently classified as “Least Concern” on the IUCN Red List, suggesting stable populations that are not immediately threatened by extinction.

In summary, sulfur-crested cockatoos are a fascinating and complex species. Their care requires a deep commitment but can be incredibly rewarding for those who embrace the challenge.

1 thought on “Sulfur-Crested Cockatoos: Living With Feathery Overlords – A Survival Guide

  1. Excellent update about parrot as I do have several kind of parrots which I will learn to teach them

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